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RADIOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL AGE: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology (2nd Ed.)
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RADIOGRAPHY IN THE DIGITAL AGE: Physics - Exposure - Radiation Biology (2nd Ed.)
By Quinn B. Carroll
Published 2014 (2nd edition)
888 pp., 8.5 x 11, 713 il.
70 tables

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978-0-398-08096-9   Hard $109.95
978-0-398-08097-6   eBook $109.95
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By Quinn B. Carroll
Published 2014
By Quinn B. Carroll
Published 2014
By Quinn B. Carroll
Published 2014

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Long overdue, this new work provides just the right focus and scope for the practice of radiography in this digital age, covering four entire courses in a typical radiography program. The entire emphasis of foundational physics has been adjusted in order to properly support the specific information on digital imaging that will follow. The paradigm shift in imaging terminology is reflected by the careful phrasing of concepts, accurate descriptions and clear illustrations throughout the book. There are 713 illustrations, including meticulous color line drawings, numerous photographs and stark radiographs. The two chapters on digital image processing alone include 60 beautifully executed illustrations. Foundational chapters on math and basic physics maintain a focus on energy physics. Obsolete and extraneous material has been eliminated, while concepts supporting digital imaging are more thoroughly discussed. All discussion of electricity is limited to only those concepts, which bear directly upon the production of x-rays in the x-ray tube. Following is a full discussion of the x-ray beam and its interactions within the patient, the production and characteristics of subject contrast, and an emphasis on the practical application of radiographic technique. This is conventional information, but the terminology and descriptions used have been adapted with great care to the digital environment. No fewer than ten chapters are devoted directly to digital imaging, providing extensive coverage of the physics of digital image capture, digital processing techniques, and the practical applications of both CR and DR. Image display systems are brought up to date with the physics of LCD screens and of electronic images. Chapters on Radiation Biology and Protection include an unflinching look at current issues and radiation protection in practice. The radiation biology is clearly presented with numerous lucid illustrations, and a balanced perspective on radiation and its medical use is developed. To reinforce mathematical concepts for the student, dozens of practice exercises are strategically dispersed throughout the chapters, with answer keys provided in the appendix. Extensive review questions at the end of each chapter give a thorough, comprehensive review of the material learned. The Instructor Resources for Radiography in the Digital Age, available on disc, includes the answer key for all chapter review questions and a bank of over 1500 multiple-choice questions for instructors’ use. It also includes 35 laboratory exercises, including 15 that demonstrate the applications of CR equipment.



1. An Introduction to Radiographic Science
2. Basic Physics for Radiography
3. Unit Conversions and Help with Math
4. The Atom
5. Electromagnetic Waves
6. Magnetism and Electrostatics
7. Electrodynamics
8. X-Ray Machine Circuits and Generators
9. The X-Ray Tube
10. X-Ray Production


11. Creation of the Radiographic Image
12. Production of Subject Contrast
13. Visibility Qualities of the Image
14. Geometrical Qualities of the Image
15. Milliampere-Seconds (mAs)
16. Kilovoltage-Peak (kVp)
17. Generators and Filtration
18. Field Size Limitation
19. Patient Condition, Pathology, and Contrast Agents
20. Scattered Radiation and Grids
21. The Anode Bevel and Focal Sp
22. Source-to-Image Receptor Distance (SID)
23. OID and Distance Ratios
24. Alignment and Motion
25. Analyzing the Latent Radiographic Image
26. Simplifying and Standardizing Technique
27. Using Automatic Exposure Controls (AEC)


28. Computer Basics
29. Creating the Digital Image
30. Digital Image Preprocessing
31. Digital Image Postprocessing
32. Postprocessing Operations in Practice
33. Applying Radiographic Technique to Digital Imaging
34. Capturing the Digital Image: DR and CR
35. Display Systems and Electronic Images
36. Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS)


37. Mobile Radiography and Tomography
38. Fluoroscopy and Digital Fluoroscopy
39. Quality Control


40. Radiation Perspectives
41. Radiation Units and Measurement
42. Radiation Biology: Cellular Effects
43. Radiation Biology: Organism Effects
44. Radiation Protection: Procedures and Policies

Appendix 1: Answers to Chapter Exercises
Appendix 2: ARRT Standard Definitions
Glossary of Digital Radiography Terms




Author recognises digital radiography as a paradigm shift

Radiography in the Digital Age. second edition, by Carroll. Published by Charles C Thomas, price $109.95. student workbook $44.95.

This is the second edi­tion of Quinn B Carroll's peer-reviewed work on dig­ital radiography and con­tains some updates and chapter restructuring. The book is aimed primarily at the American market and has been written with stu­dents in radiology techno­logy in mind. It is a very wide-ranging book. 44 chap­ters and over 800 pages in total, dealing with the underpinning physics behind digital radiography.

The author takes a new approach. starting out with basic principles and building on these over the course of the book to explain how they relate to all aspects of modern radiographic prac­tice. The author's philo­sophy recognises that digital radiography is a paradigm shift that requires a rethink on how the physics is pre­sented. Carroll postulates

that learners will benefit from a bottom-up rethink about which concepts are required to best understand image production from a digital viewpoint, rather than attempting to holt new concepts onto a traditional model. I think he largely succeeds in this approach. The writing is very user-friendly, and provides the novice with a very good tour of the physical principles applied to radiography in an unpretentious and easy to grasp tone.

The maths is introduced gradually and there are helpful analogies provided to aid understanding. Physics is not always the favourite topic for a student radiographer but for a learner coming into the field with no pre-existing know­ledge I think this book provides a gentle enough learning curve to maintain interest while covering all of the important theory. This is no easy feat and I think the main strength of the writing is in the way that theoretical principles are strongly applied to practice and real-world scenarios.

The content includes: background history, basic physics, units, atomic structure, electromagnetism,

electrodynamics,      radiographic equipment (genera­tors and tubes), image production (and image opti­misation), computer basics, digital image processing and post-processing, image capture, archiving. QA. radiation biology and radia­tion protection. This may seem an overly ambitious range of topics for one book. but due to its sheer physical size there is both depth and breadth to the content.

The general quality of the images and diagrams is excellent and they have been chosen to illustrate every important concept presented as well as some thrown in for general inter­est (including a fish with scoliosis). Every chapter concludes with review ques­tions allowing the student to take a formative assess­ment of knowledge before moving on. There is also a student workbook to accom­pany the main text that allows the learner to fill in the missing words without having to write in the text­book itself.

For radiography educa­tors, the publisher includes a range of ready-made resources to accompany the book. These are provided on PC and Mac-compatible CD-ROM including test ques­tions, lab exercises and slide presentations. These are all presented as Microsoft Word documents and PowerPoint presenta­tions. The graphical style of the PowerPoint slideshows may not be to everyone's taste, but the author has used template formatting —so it is relatively easy to change the style to match your own preference.

Priced at around £150 this is likely to appeal to the lecturer/educator rather than to the practitioner, but would make a useful addition to the library of any radiography depart­ment with students.

John Talbot/RAD Magazine 41, 480, pg 38


Review #2



Quinn Carroll has done it again.  His latest editions of Radiography in the Digital Age and Student Workbook are fine examples of his hard work and dedication to the profession of medical imaging.  Having known Mr. Carroll for almost 30 years and using his radiography text books and resources for that length of time, I can attest to the high quality of his work that not only prepares radiology students for the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists Registry Examination in Radiography but also for practice in the profession in which he has dedicated his life.


            Having been a Radiologic Technology Program Director and Instructor at Midland College in Midland, Texas, for many years, Mr. Carroll has a clear understanding of the ever-changing requirements put forth by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Standards for an Accredited Educational Program in Radiography, the American Society of Radiologic Technologist’s Curriculum Guide For Radiography and the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.


 His textbooks, student workbooks and instructor materials all reflect his desire to present highly technical information, sometimes difficult for the students to understand, in a concise and logical manner.  Before publishing his materials, he experiments with and tests the concepts that are included in his works to ensure the published information is true and correct.  The high standards he has adhered to throughout his career have been reflected in these outstanding publications.


The second edition of the Radiography in the Digital Age textbook is an enlarged version of the first edition.  The textbook is now 8 ½ “x 11” allowing for enhanced visualization of the print and illustrations.  The textbook contains 5 parts:


Part I:  The Physics of Radiography,covering the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation, atomic structure, electricity, magnetism, the xray circuit, the components of the xray tube and the production of x-radiation.


Part II:  Production of the Radiographic Image,describing the many variables of image production including xray interactions within the patient, subject contrast, sharpness and visibility of detail, patient conditions and pathology, positioning alignments, technical factors such as mAs, kVp, generator types, filtration, collimation, anode focal spot, SID, OID and SOD, scatter production and grids, automatic exposure controls, technique charts and evaluation of the manifest image.


Part III:  Digital Radiography, including greatly expanded chapters providing the latest information on the creation of the digital image, digital pre- and post-processing, the construction and function of Computerized Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) systems, the importance of display monitors and the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in which processed digital images are stored and retrieved.


Part IV:  Special Imaging Methods, presenting mobile radiography, tomography, digital and analog fluoroscopy and quality control testing methods for analog and digital radiography equipment and display monitors.


Part V:  Radiation Biology and Protection:  instructing students on how radiation affects somatic and genetic cells, risk factors of radiation exposure, radiation protection procedures and policies, units of measurement and detection and effective doses for occupational workers.


            Each of the forty-four chapters conclude with review questions that cover pertinent information presented in the chapter along with questions that will hone the critical thinking skills of the students.  Answer to Chapter Exercises are provided in the back of the textbook along with a Glossary of Radiographic Terms.


            The Student Workbook for Radiography in the Digital Age, 2nd ed., is also 8 ½ “x 11” and spiral bound.  Fill-in-the-blank questions are included for each chapter and are written to provide additional study material when viewing the PowerPoint slides that are available with this edition.


            Mr. Carroll, being an instructor himself for many years and empathetic to the needs of other instructors in the profession, has provided the following much-needed instructor resources:

                        PowerPoint Slide Presentations:  these slides are colorful, informational and                                             presented in large print to capture the attention of the radiology student of any  age.  The slides are in template format allowing for ease of editing by the  instructor if desired. The slide set is $599.95 for the CD or for Mac/PC direct  download.   For instructors who have already purchased the complete                                                             PowerPoint slide set previously, they have made available the slides for the  newly expanded nine chapters on digital imaging for $199.95 in the download  version only.


                        Instructor Resources for Radiography in the Digital Age, 2nd ed.:  the CD or Mac/PC                                     download version is $299.95 and includes answer keys for both the textbook and workbook questions along with over fifty lab experiments covering analog and digital imaging concepts, QC testing and radiation protection procedures.  And he doesn’t stop  there!  What Radiologic Technology instructor doesn’t appreciate help with test writing  so Mr. Carroll has included over 1500 multiple choice questions to be used for chapter  tests, quizzes, additional study sheets, etc.


            Mr. Carroll has provided Radiologic Technology educators and students with abundant resources for the presentation of electromagnetic energy, medical imaging equipment, imaging considerations, radiobiology and radiation protection.


            Well done Quinn B. Carroll and Charles C. Thomas Publishing Company!  Your diligence to provide quality educational materials is greatly appreciated by Radiologic Technologists across the country!

Sondra Richards, MS, RT(R)(M)/Program Director/Assistant Professor/Radiologic Technology/North Arkansas College/Harrison, Arkansas




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